Infinitives gerunds participles

Infinitives gerunds participles

Infinitives, gerunds, participles

The Infinitives:

  1. Finite verbs

These verbs are change according to the person (1st, 2nd ,3rd )and the number (singular, plural)of their subject.

  • They play cricket. (They…..play)
  • He play cricket. (He …………plays)

2.  Infinite verbs.

These verbs are not limit by the person or number of a subject. They don’t also express the tense of the verb.

In the sentence. They like to sing. To sing is an infinite verb.

  • I want to write a letter.
  • To err is human.

Note 1 : in simple words, it means to say that an infinitive is form by adding ‘’to’’ to the first form of verb of the present Tense of a finite verb as to jump, to break ,to go, to come, to add, to stand, to purchase, etc.

Note 2 : with some certain verbs and phrases to (infinitive sign ) is not used. Such infinitive is called as bare infinitive. These certain verbs are:

Dare, bid, make, hear, let, see, had better, need not, would, rather….than, would sooner ….than.

Can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would.

For examples:

  • Please ,let them come in the room.
  • You need not worry about it.
  • She would rather die than beg.
  • I heard her shouting.
  • You dare not face you parents.

The participle

(A verb used as an adjective)

A verb can be made an adjective by ‘’ing’’ or ‘’ed’’ participles.

There are two major kinds of participles:

Present participle:

First form of verb with ‘ing’

Taking, debating, speaking, etc.

(Hence it is also called ‘ing’ form of verb. )

Past participle

(Third from of the verb: and is call‘ed’ participle)

Verb ing   participle ‘’ed’’    participle

Excite ……..exacting……..excited

Worry ……….worrying……….worried

THE GERUND:

A verb used as noun is call a gerund. A gerund is derive (originated) from a verb by adding ‘’ing’’ with it.

For example:

  • Write_________ writing
  • Ride __________ riding
  • Teach _________ teaching
  • Swim__________ swimming

Note:1 gerund is also use as a subject: as he following examples show:

  • Riding is enjoyable
  • Teaching is a very noble profession.

Note: 2 when gerund is used in the middle of a sentence It always has a preposition with it. so there are some example that show a sentence

For example:

  • He is afraid of riding a horse.
  • His favorite game, swimming is difficult to learn. (Apposition)
  • The little girl has learnt writing.(Object of verb)
  • They were sorry for being late.(Object of preposition)
  • My favorite sports are running. (Complement)
  • my younger brother is fond of swimming.

It is very important to not here that when a gerund is use like an ordinary noun It must have the before it and of after it. It is then called a verbal noun.

کا استعمال کرنا چاہیے۔ofاوربعدمیںThe کا استعمال ایک عام ناوٰ ن کی طرح کیا جائےتو اس سے پہلے Gerundاگر
  • Coming of you friend here is sure now. (Incorrect)
  • The coming of your friend here is sure now. (Correct)
  • Shooting of the birds is banned in this forest. (Incorrect)
  • The shooting of the birds is banned in this forest. (Correct)

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