## Introduction Formulas Ms Excel 2007

#### Formulas Ms Excel 2007:

Formulas Ms Excel 2007:A formula performs calculation on data and displays the result I a cell. And displays the result in a cell. A formula begins with equal sign =. It can be used for different types of calculation. For example, it can be use to calculation the total marks of students. A formula is entered in a cell. It appears I the formula bar when that cell is activated.

**Entering a Formula in Excel**

The following procedure is use to enter formula in Excel.

- Click any
**cell**to enter the formula. - Type the equal
**sign =** - Types a
**Formula**and press Enter key. The result will appear in the cell and the formula will appear in the formula Bar.

**Example 1**

- Move cursor to cell A1.
- Type 1 and press Enter.
- Type =A1+A2 in cell A3 and press Enter.
- Note that cell A1 has been added to cell A2 and the result is shown in cell A3.

**Example 2**

- Type 5 in cell B1 and press Enter.
- Write 3 in cell B2 and press Enter.
- Type = B1 –B2 in cell B3 and press Enter.
- Cell B1 is subtracted from B2 and result appears in cell B3.
- Click cell B3 and look at Formula bar. You can divide and multiply in the same way.

#### Arithmetic Operators in Excel:

Arithmetic operators are use to perform on the elements of a formula. Excel use the standard arithmetic operators as follows:

+ | Addition | =A7+A9 |

- | Subtraction | = A7-A9 |

* | Multiplication | =A7*A9 |

/ | Division | =A7/A9 |

% | Percent | =50% |

^ | Exponents | =5^3(5 raised to power 3) |

#### Precedence of operations:

The order in which operators are evaluate in a mathematical expression is called operator precedence. The operator with the highest precedence is evaluate first.

Parentheses | ( ) |

Negation | - |

Percentage | % |

Exponentiation | ^ |

Multiplication and division | *and / |

Addition and substation | + and - |

Concatenation | And |

#### Cell Reference:

Each cell in has a reference number. A cell reference in a formula refers to the contents of reference cell. The result of formula is automatically will be change if contents reference cell are change. A cell reference consists of column name and row number. For example, B20 refers to row 20 in column B. The formula = G8 +Y10 will add values of G8 and Y10.

Range all cells can be reference as range if formula use continuous cells. The range is specify as follows:

- Address of the first cell: address of the last cell.

For example, the cells D3, E3 ,F3, G3 can be reference as D3:G3.

#### Relative, Absolute and mixed Referencing:

Referencing cells by column and row labels such as A1 is called relative referencing if a formula containing relative referencing is copied from one cell to another, spreadsheet changes cell addressed relative to the new cell address.

**Example**

if a simple addition formula in cell C1 i.e. =(A1+B1) is copy to cell C2, the formula will change to = ( A2+B2) to reflect the new row.

##### Absolute Referencing:

Referencing cells by column and row labels along with “$”such as “$A1” is called absolute referencing. if a formula containing absolute referencing is copied from one cell to another, Excel does not change cell addresses.

**Example**

and In previous example, the formula in cell C1 would read =($A$1+$B$1) if the value of cell C2 should be the sum of cells A1 and B1.Both the column and row of both cells are absolute and will not be change when copies.

**Mixed Referencing.**

Mixed addressed are the cell referencing that combine absolute and relative addressing, making either the row or the column absolute.