The sentence and The kinds of Sentence

Kinds of Sentence

The Sentence:

A sentence is a group of words that expresses an utter thought.

جملہ الفاظ کا ایک ایسا مجموعہ ہوتا ہے جو ایک مکمل خیال کو ظاہر کرتاہے۔

example of Sentence :

  • He goes to school daily.
  • These are useful books to read.
  • My friend lives in Lahore.
  • They are playing cricket.

The kinds of Sentence

There are five kinds of a sentence:

ایک جملہ کی پانچ اقسام ہوتی ہیں
  • Declarative,
  • interrogative,
  • imperative,
  • exclamatory and
  • optative sentence.

A declarative sentence:

 اس قسم کا جملہ ایک بیان دیتا ہے۔اس قسم کا جملہ کے اختتام پر ہمیشہ فل سٹاپ (.)ڈالا جاتا ہے۔

This kind of sentence makes a statement. A full stop (.) is always use at the end of this kind of sentence.

For examples:

  • Ali has not come today.
  • We are playing cricket.
  • Our teacher taught us a new lesson last week.
  • The farmers are cutting their crops today.

An interrogative sentence:

اس قسم کا جملہ ایک سوال پوچھتا ہے۔اوراس قسم کے جملہ کے اختتام پر ہمیشہ سوالیہ نشان (؟)ڈالا جاتا ہے۔

This kind of sentence asks a question and a question mark (?) is always put at the end of the sentence.

For examples:

  • Where are you going this time?
  • Have you done your home word?
  • What is your name?

An imperative sentence:

اس قسم کا جملہ کسی کو کچھ کرنے یا حکم یا درخواست دیتا ہے۔

This kind of a sentence makes a command or requests someone to do something. This is further classified in four types:

Order, forbade, Request, Advise,

For examples:

  • Open your book at page no. 10.
  • Don’t disturb me this time.
  • Please help me in this matter.

Note: Here, it is worthy to note that if the command in an imperative sentence is short and small, an exclamatory mark (!) is put at the end of a sentence.

  • Be off!
  • Take it away!

 An exclamatory sentence:

اس قسم کا جملہ شدید احساسات و جذبات کا اظہار کرتا ہے۔اور جملہ کااختتام حیرانگی کے نشان (!) سے کیا جاتا ہے۔

This kind of sentence expresses strong feeling and emotions and the sentence is ended with a sign of exclamation (!)

For examples

  • Alas! We lost an important match.
  • Hurrah! We have won the tournament.
  • What a beautiful watch it is!
  • How foolish this man is!

An optative sentence:

اس قسم کا جملہ کو ئی خواہش ،دعا ، یا التجا کا اظہار کرتا ہے۔

This kind of sentence expresses some wish, prayer or entreaty.

For examples:

  • May you succeed in the coming life!
  • May his soul rest in peace!
  • Make him work hard.

Part of a sentence

There are two main parts of a sentence.

  • Subject or the noun- part
  • Predicate or the verb- part

Subject:

A word which denotes the person or thing about which something is said in a sentence is called the subject of the sentence

Predicate:

A word which says something about the person or thing denoted by the subject in a sentence is called predicate.

For example

They are reading a newspaper.

  • They ________________________subject
  • Are reading a newspaper ________predicate

The construction of a sentence

We usually mean it the arrangement of different components (parts) a sentence. A sentence may comprise of five constituents …called elements of sentence structure.

Subjects(S):

It is the main constituent (part) of a sentence and generally refers to the doer of an action.

For example:

  • Ali plays cricket (Ali……………….Subject)

Verb (V)

A word that expresses an action or state of being (in a sentence)is called verb.

For examples:

  • He digs a well (dig…………………….verb showing action.
  • You seem worried. (Seem…………….verb showing state of being)

Object (O)

An object is a word that is associated with the receiver or goal of an action .or a word that receives the action of the doer.

For example

  • Ali reads a book. (Book………………….Object, receiving an action)

Complement

A word which completes the meaning of a verb, noun or adjective is called complement OR in a sentence, the word which is associated with completing the action specified by the verb is called complement.

For examples:

  • It sounds good. (Good…………….. complement to the verb sound)
  • She looks glad. (Glad …………………….complement to the verb looks)

Adverbial or adjunct

The most frequent action of this word is to specify the mode of action of verb. These words are generally answers to the question beginning with how? When? Where? etc.

For example

  • Ali plays cricket in the evening. (In the evening ………………adverbial answer to the questing when?)

 

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